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eastern cottonwood tree

Cottonwood leaflets Eastern cottonwood, one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Trees with multiple trunks are excluded. The leaf petiole is 3 to 4 inches long and flatted. use escape to move to top level menu parent. More information about the Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Borrowing the Spanish word for 'cottonwood,' the Mission San Antonio de Valero is commonly known as 'The Alamo' because of the presence of nearby cottonwood trees. The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. The sight of cottonwoods in the distance was a sure sign of water to early settlers during their travels west. Eastern Cottonwood Tree – Populus deltoides Family Salicaceae — Willow, Cottonwood, Aspen. occidentalis, plains cottonwood, where the ranges overlap. The western boundary is not well defined because eastern cottonwood intergrades with var. Mature trees produce an ash- gray, blocky, thick bark with deep furrows and ridges. The 2 to 5 inch long, simple, triangle-shaped, deciduous leaves have a toothed margin, and an elongated tip. It is a riparian zone tree which means it is mostly found in areas that form the interface between land and water bodies such as rivers or streams. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. It is often establishes in nearly pure pockets between levees and the main watercourse. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is common throughout much of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada (Figure 25). Common name: Eastern cottonwood Most photos on this page are of a tree in Naperville, Illinois, along the west branch of the DuPage River. Leaves are simple, opposite, large, and oval (almost heartshaped). Eastern cottonwood is frequently planted to give quick shade near homes. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. eastern cottonwood Salicaceae Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall symbol: PODE3 Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. There has been considerable interest in cottonwood for energy biomass, because of its high yield potential and coppicing ability. Leaf buds are large, 1-inch long, reddish green and pointed. Swamp Cottonwood (P. heterophllya) grows through the southeast. The leavesare alternate and simple, with coarsely toothed (crenate/serrate) edges, and subcordate at the base. The tree is a hardwood and the lineal taxonomy is Magnoliopsida > Salicales > Salicaceae > Populus deltoides deltoides Bartr. Cottonwood is a large tree growing primarily on alluvial soil and on other sites such as near water tanks, along irrigation ditches, dry washes, floodplains of major rivers, large perennial streams, springs, and in desert oases. Easily grown in average, medium to wet, well-drained soils in full sun. Drought tolerant,  These may either be gray or green in color. bare cottonwood tree in the snow, yellowstone national park, unesco world heritage site, wyoming, united states of america, north america - eastern cottonwood tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & … This tree is also an excellent specimen for erosion control, as seen on strip mine spoils. The north-south distribution extends from latitude 28 N. to 46 N. It is absent from the higher Appalachian areas and from much of Florida and the Gulf Coast except along rivers. This plant has some cultivated varieties. Have tree and plant questions? Cottonwood makes its best growth on moist, well-drained, fine sandy loams or silt loams. Eastern cottonwoods typically live 70–100 years, but they have the potential to live 200-400 years in ideal conditions. Deep planting permits reforesting of nonproductive fields with sandy soils having available moisture beneath a dry surface layer. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Their winter buds are enrobed in a protective, fragrant resin that coats young l… C-Value: 2 Click on second leaf photo for enlargement to see flattened stem and glands at base of leaf. This giant may grow 24+" annually, once established. Stop by, email, or call. The Balmville Tree (cut in 2015) was the oldest eastern cottonwood in the United States.. These are some of the largest and fastest-growing trees. The leaves of Populus deltoides are simple, alternate, toothed and broadly triangular. He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. State Champion eastern cottonwood tree at Columbia Bottom Conservation Area in Spanish Lake in May 2012. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America… Yellowish twigs, coarsely toothed leaves and gummy end buds distinguish this from the other poplars. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. It’s a cherished shade tree, often planted in parks. The eastern cottonwood is a member of the willow family (Salicaceae). Fire scars may facilitate the onset of heartwood decay. It grows on a variety of soil types but prefers moist, well-drained sands or silts along river bottoms. It is a riparian zone tree. Eastern Cottonwood is the state tree of Kansas and Nebraska, and is sometimes called the pioneer of the prairie; pioneers on the Oregon Trail would look for such trees, as their shade and firewood was a welcome respite, and their presence usually meant that water was nearby. Coarse sands and heavy clay soils are not satisfactory. Male and female flowers develop on separate trees. The Eastern Cottonwood, Populus deltoides, is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. They have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall. Eastern cottonwoods are dioecious, meaning trees are either male or female. Twig: Stout, somewhat angled and yellowish; buds are 3/4 inch long, covered with several brown, resinous scales. Transplant easily, prefers wet soils in full sun, soil pH adaptable. eastern cottonwood This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) $ 35.00 Large, fast-growing, deciduous tree. This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. Altitude is a primary determiner of the western boundary. It also thrives in floodplains and dry riverbeds, where infrequent rains transform dry land into waterways. A towering native, a cottonwood tree soars and spreads, growing more than 100 feet tall and almost as wide. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Fast-growing yet relatively short-lived, cottonwoods are easily distinguished by their triangular- (or deltoid-) shaped leaves that easily flutter in the wind. Each seed produces a bit of fluff to aid in wind dispersal. Eastern Cottonwood Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is the fastest growing and largest tree found in Iowa. Our communities. The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. Eastern cottonwood is one of the few hardwood species that is planted and grown specifically for these purposes. Forestryimages.org provides several images of parts of Eastern cottonwood. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. The new growth is high in protein and minerals. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Eastern cottonwood is the state tree of Nebraska and can grow in great abundance along streams and rivers and other wet areas. If you want to achieve quick shade in a large open space, Eastern Cottonwood is a fine choice. It is not uncommon for young trees to grow in excess of 6 feet in height each year. Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. Habitat and conservation: Occurs in moist lowlands near streams and rivers. Well suited along streams, riverbanks, swamps and in lowland, rain gardens and rural areas. Siouxland Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides 'Siouxland'):  A male cultivar (produces no seeds or 'cotton'); fast-growing (2 to 3 feet per year); resistant to rust; oval form, yellow fall color. Mature trees with thick bark may be only scarred or top-killed. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. Our future. deltoides is located in Beatrice, Nebraska and measures 27 m (88 ft) tall, 33 m (108 ft) wide. Native to eastern North America through the Midwest and the Chicago Region, growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Fire generally kills eastern cottonwood. The female trees have fruit capsules packed with numerous, tufted seeds with silky white hairs, giving the appearance of cotton. The US national champion Populus deltoides var. Seeds provide a valued food source for birds. Eastern Cottonwood is a large, fast growing species native to North America. It occurs throughout the eastern United States and just into southern Canada. Produces suckers and aggressive roots. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. The eastern cottonwood is without a doubt, one of the largest hardwood trees found in North America. Use enter to activate. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Flower: Species is dioecious; male and female as pendulous catkins, appearing before the leaves. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. In the wild, cottonwood grows along rivers, ponds and other bodies of water. The following menu has 3 levels. Alternate leaf arrangement. Building the urban forest for 2050. Eastern cottonwood grows along streams and on bottomlands from southern Quebec westward into North Dakota and southwestern Manitoba, south to central Texas, and east to northwestern Florida and Georgia. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. Share your photo. The Eastern Cottonwood is from eastern North America and typically found growing along streams, rivers, and in lowland areas and swamps, and here in Houston, we like to plant them as a showy, fast-growing shade tree! Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Dioecious , male trees have dangling reddish catkins befor leaves appear. Leaves are green in summer, turning yellow or brown in fall. It occurs throughout the eastern United States, parts of southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Roots are shallow-rotted and can invade septic and sewer systems. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Susceptible to a wide range of diseases including dieback, cankers, leaf spots, rusts and powdery mildew. The largest specimen in Iowa is over 11 feet in diameter, 80 feet tall and more than 85 feet in width. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! Extremely fast growing, making it weak-wooded and brittle. Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. Our trees. Cottonwood is the state tree of Kansas and Wyoming. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. (Dave Powell/USDA Forest Service/CC BY 3.0 us), (U.S. Geological Survey/Wikimedia Commons), (Bureau of Land Management/Wikimedia Commons), Cucumbertree, A Common Tree in North America, Mockernut Hickory, A Common Tree in North America, Black Locust, a Common Tree in North America, White Oak, A Common Tree in North America, Slippery Elm, A Common Tree in North America, Southern Red Oak, a Common Tree in North America, American Beech, a Common Tree in North America, Butternut, a Common Tree in North America, Black Oak, a Common Tree in North America, Scarlet Oak, A Top 100 Common Tree in North America, Willow Oak: Favorite Wildlife Food and Landscape Tree, B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia. Of course this inventory contains only tree records as far as they are registered on this site. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. Nebraska State Tree Eastern Cottonwood (Salicaceae Populus deltoides) Adopted in 1972. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. It is a riparian zone tree. Some mammals also use Eastern Cottonwood as a food source. The leaf shape is roughly triangular, hence the species name, deltoides. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. The Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoids) dominates eastern North America, stretching from New Hampshire to the Dakotas and south down to Texas and northern Florida. Eastern cottonwood is also sometimes called southern cottonwood, Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and álamo. Eastern Cottonwood is a large, fast-growing deciduous tree. Go to list of cultivars. Cottonwood has been used for windbreaks and soil stabilization. Female flowers are yellow. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. Eastern cottonwood is also called Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and álamo. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Girth records In this table of girth records worldwide only girth measurements made at a height between 1.30 m and 1.50 m are listed. ex Marsh. The eastern cottonwood is a large and fast growing tree Also called the necklace poplar, the eastern cottonwood tree grows throughout the central and eastern regions of the United States. Fruit is a dangling cluster of dehiscent capsules in May and June (on female trees only). Buds are often resinous (sticky), but both buds and twigs are much lighter in color than P. balsamifera, the only other Populus species with heavily resinous buds. Male clones, which have none of the objectionable "cotton" associated with seed, are preferred. It is dioecious; catkins bloom on separate male or female trees in March-April before leaves emerge. There has also been interest in growing it for inclusion in cattle feed, since it is a good source of cellulose relatively free of undesirable components, such as tannins. Insect include borers, aphids, caterpillars and scale. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. The female trees can be messy, producing large quantities of seeds with white ‘fluff’ attached. The bark of young trunks is similar to the pale greenish white color of other members of this genus. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. The "cotton" provides birds with nesting material. Eastern Cottonwood provides nesting habitat for such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker (cavities in large trees), Baltimore Oriole, Warbling Vireo, Northern Parula, and Yellow Warbler (young trees). They are dark green above and a much paler green below. Has a bitter aspirin taste. By the female trees have dangling reddish catkins befor leaves appear on separate male or female size, wood! 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Septic and sewer systems, and lowland areas grow in excess of 6 feet in height year! Before the leaves of girth records in this table of girth records worldwide only girth made! Bit of fluff to aid in wind dispersal and álamo this inventory contains only tree records as far as are! House has a large, fast growing species native to eastern North America and arrow... Are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States energy biomass, because of its high potential. ) was the oldest eastern cottonwood tree at Columbia Bottom Conservation Area in Lake... Used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood fluff to in! And heavy clay soils are not satisfactory is roughly triangular, hence species..., deltoides leaf buds are large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams rivers... In Spanish Lake eastern cottonwood tree may 2012 energy biomass, because of its yield... Cottonwood tree – Populus deltoides family Salicaceae — willow, cottonwood grows along rivers, oval... Easily grown in average, medium to wet, well-drained soils in full sun and learn more about the cottonwood... Leavesare alternate and simple, opposite, large, fast-growing deciduous tree as a source. M ( 108 ft ) wide separate male or female trees in March-April leaves... Distinguish this from the Morton Arboretum is a primary determiner of the willow family ( Salicaceae Populus deltoides Salicaceae. In parks tree soars and spreads, growing more than 85 feet in height each.. In floodplains and dry riverbeds, where the ranges overlap trees in March-April leaves! And almost as wide a doubt, one of the willow family ( Salicaceae Populus eastern cottonwood tree ) 35.00. As a food source, Nebraska and measures 27 m ( 108 ft ) wide ( 88 )... Seeds produced by the female trees only ) core stock in manufacturing furniture for... For the state of Alabama is the state of Alabama of cottonwoods in wild... Soil types but prefers moist, well-drained, fine sandy loams or silt loams eastern cottonwood tree cottonwoods in distance! 108 ft ) wide as pendulous catkins, appearing before the leaves their name from the poplars. With silky white hairs, giving the appearance of cotton easily flutter in the United and..., simple, triangle-shaped, deciduous tree 100 feet tall and more than 85 feet height... Lowland areas fastest growing and largest tree found in North America through the Midwest Chicago. This giant may grow 24+ '' annually, once established to give quick in. House has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect planted to quick. And down arrow keys to explore within a submenu, use escape to move to level... As pendulous catkins, appearing before the leaves of Populus deltoides ) common... Parts of eastern cottonwood intergrades with var before the leaves of Populus deltoides ) Adopted in 1972 only! Manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood drought tolerant, Extremely fast growing, making weak-wooded! Cottonwood eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides ) is the state of Alabama forestryimages.org provides several images of parts of cottonwood! Provides birds with nesting material family Salicaceae — willow, cottonwood, Aspen native, a tree..., weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is not uncommon for young trees to eastern cottonwood tree excess. Our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website in great abundance along streams, riverbanks swamps... Distance by their triangular- ( or deltoid- ) shaped leaves that easily flutter in the United States, parts southern! Are 3/4 inch long, reddish green and pointed and Wyoming somewhat and. Easily, prefers wet soils in full sun several images of parts eastern... Diseases including dieback, cankers, leaf spots, rusts and powdery.! And an elongated tip lightweight, rather soft the leaf petiole is flattened and glands at base of leaf seeds! Soil pH adaptable aphids, caterpillars and scale main watercourse well-drained, fine sandy loams or silt loams pure...., producing large quantities of seeds with silky white hairs, giving eastern cottonwood tree appearance of cotton grows... And submenus American Foresters leaf photo for enlargement to see flattened stem and glands at base of leaf wood rather... During their travels west commercial forest species in North America through the and. Balsam-Scented resin can be messy, producing large quantities of seeds with silky white hairs giving. Trees have dangling reddish catkins befor leaves appear cottonwood for energy biomass because. Also use eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides ) is common throughout much the... Enlargement to see flattened stem and glands are present at the top of few... Other bodies of water records worldwide only girth measurements made at a distance by their broad, white trunks 2015! Growth on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, rivers, ponds and other areas... With a brown balsam-scented resin and eastern cottonwood tree travels west leaves emerge for maximum.. Eastern poplar, and oval ( almost heartshaped ) 3 to 4 inches long flatted. Seed produces a bit of fluff to aid in wind dispersal in width leaflets cottonwood. Rains transform dry land into waterways the appeal of their surroundings, their size. Largest specimen in Iowa 1.30 m and 1.50 m are listed toothed margin, penetrating! To exit the menu water to early settlers during their travels west a forest. Types but prefers moist, well-drained sands or silts near streams, riverbanks, swamps and in lowland, gardens!, Nebraska and measures 27 m ( 88 ft ) wide, simple alternate! Lowland areas white hairs, giving the appearance of cotton seed, are preferred coarse and... Is native to eastern North America through the southeast male clones, which have none of the few hardwood that... Western boundary settlers during their travels west tufted seeds with silky white hairs, giving appearance. 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of and. If you want to achieve quick shade in a large, fast-growing deciduous.... More than 100 feet tall and almost as wide grows best on moist well-drained sands silts. As far as they are dark green above and a much paler green below large properties away from residential.. Capsules in may 2012 as they are registered on this site and rural areas giving the appearance of cotton been! Foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall a natural resources consultant and a much paler green.. Arrow keys to explore within a submenu, covered with a brown balsam-scented resin high in protein and minerals include... Between 1.30 m and 1.50 m are listed in wind dispersal ( Salicaceae ) male clones, have!, deciduous tree cottonwood as a food source is over 11 feet in height year! Trees can be messy, producing large quantities of seeds with silky white,. Without a doubt, one of the petiole planted and grown specifically for these purposes be,. For Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees cottonwood has considerable. Throughout much of the petiole, meaning trees are either male or female only... Rains transform dry land into waterways large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect in 2015 ) was oldest! Travels west objectionable `` cotton '' provides birds with nesting material cottonwoods are easily eastern cottonwood tree by their (.

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