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ABC's advocacy programs, including Cats Indoors and Glass Collisions, continue work to reduce or remove some of the challenges facing Spotted Towhees across their wide range. Take the Rufous-sided Towhee, found across North America. The towhee is a sparrow. The Spotted Towhee is common and widespread in the western United States, southwestern Canada, and much of Mexico. These birds prefer to forage in bushes with Other american sparrows, towhees and juncos. The sides are rufous, and the breast and belly are white. The sides are rufous, and the breast and belly are white. 0:00 / Spotted towhee (call / song) call, song. Other american sparrows, towhees and juncos. ), The word "towhee" mimics the loud whistle of the Eastern Towhee. The spotted towhee is a permanent resident and breeding bird of the Refuge and surrounding area. and fruit. They have a thick pointed, black bill, and fire red eyes. Until 1995 the spotted towhee was considered a race of the rufous-sided towhee. The Spotted Towhee and its close relative, the Eastern Towhee, were once considered one species — the Rufous-sided Towhee — but were recognized as distinct species in 1995. (Pipilo maculatus) Spotted towhees are smaller than a robin, about 8 inches. The Spotted Towhee is a large sparrow that prefers breeding habitats which include thickets and shrublands throughout western North America. Listen to Spotted towhee on bird-sounds.net - a comprehensive collection of North American bird songs and bird calls. In light of recent DNA analyses and a reexamination of differences in songs and morphology (the birds’ form and structure), scientists have split the rufous-sided towhee into two populations: the spotted towhee and the eastern towhee. Hummingbird Feeders Both have reddish sides, a white belly, and RED EYES! Same date Sat Dec 21, 2019 around in leaves in the undergrowth, and can be hard to see but male has black. edges, and canyons. Spotted and Eastern Towhees regularly hybridize where their ranges meet, throughout the central Great Plains states. Above is the male towhee and below is the female (not the best photo) This over sized sparrow is usually … The female towhee builds a nest on the ground or in low bushes. His head and upper parts are black. Photos and sounds of the Spotted Towhee can be seen and heard at the Macaulay Library . The Spotted Towhee will often only … The spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus) is a large New World sparrow. Home. This species has been known to interbreed with the Collared Towhee in areas of southwestern Mexico where the ranges of the two species overlap. White spots stand out on the black back, and wings. will feed the young birds which may leave the nest in around Often found scratching noisily in leaf litter in dense shrubbery, chaparral and forest edges, the Spotted Towhee will sometimes come out in the open and sing from the top of an exposed bush. Other american sparrows, towhees and juncos. However, the Spotted Towhee’s song sounds similar to the well-known “drink-your-tea” song of its eastern cousin. The spotted towhee is a permanent resident and breeding bird of the Refuge and surrounding area. The They are often found in //-->, Available for Immediate The western Spotted Towhee differs from the Eastern Towhee’s call in the introduction. In the female, the black parts are brown. The long tail is black with large white spots at the Same area Another location near Spotted Towhee stakeout, Morrison 2019, Morrison County, Minnesota, US. Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus) bird call sounds on dibird.com. Its favorite foods are insects, seeds and berries. Lee. The deep chestnut flanks and sides combined with the male's solid black head, red eye, and black upperparts are distinctive. Bird Shapes This sound may be uttered by either gender at any age and any time of year. He made two types of sounds, which was nice of him to share. Although the Spotted Towhee retained this name after the species split, its call is actually more of a cat-like mew, reminiscent of a Gray Catbird. ", Like other sparrows such as the Saltmarsh and Sagebrush, the Spotted Towhee, found from southwestern Canada through the western United States and in the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala, is the result of a taxonomic "split." Policy   About Site - Sources Used, For more on food and feeding click (Browse free accounts on the home page.) Its white underside offsets its rich rufous flanks and undertail. This ground-feeding bird forages with a style similar to the White-throated Sparrow, hopping forward and backward while raking the ground with both feet to reveal insects and seeds. Breeding in Middle America, North America: sw Canada to w Guatemala; can be seen in 4 countries. Although they do search for food in trees Same date Sat Dec 21, 2019 BIRD OF THE WEEK: January 25, 2019 SCIENTIFIC NAME: Pipilo maculatus POPULATION: 30 million TREND: Stable HABITAT: Forest edges, shrubs, thickets, brushy backyards, and parks, Ornithologist Edward Forbush commented in 1929: "[The Towhee] is a ground bird — an inhabitant of bushy land. here, To learn about other favorite call / song. Although the Spotted Towhee remains common throughout its range, it is still subject to the same threats causing bird declines throughout the Americas: habitat loss, invasive species, collisions, and more. plumage. Conservation Status: Spotted Towhees used to be fairly rare in western Washington but increased clear-cutting made a lot of new habitat available and their numbers continue to increase. here. This species has been known to interbreed with the Collared Towhee in areas of southwestern Mexico where the ranges of the two species overlap. The Towhee’s vocalization has been described as a drawn-out buzzy trill, “chweeeee”,”tu-wheeze”, or a long drawn out “breee”(Davis 1958). Same shape as the California Towhee but much more colorful. The female is similar, but has brown where the call / song. In California, some Spotted Towhees must also contend with brood parasitism by California Quail, which often "dump" their eggs in other species' nests. For more on feeders click here. uncover food. How they sound: Their song starts with a few short introductory notes and is followed by a fast trill that sounds like a piece of paper stuck into a fan. Literature before 1995 referred to the spotted towhee as a rufous-sided towhee that resides in the western United States. Both parents Towhees have several distinctive behaviors that help identify them including being a ground feeder (they prefer white-proso millet), they hop, and they use a two-footed scratching motion when foraging for food. It seems to be used for scolding as well as by perched or foraging birds. When disturbed, the female Spotted Towhee prefers to run away from her nest like a mouse rather than fly, similar to other secretive birds that nest on or near the ground, including the Grasshopper Sparrow and Eastern Meadowlark. The Rufous-sided Towhee was split into the Eastern Towhee & Spotted Towhee back in the mid 90s. spots and incubate them for 12 to 14 days. Listen for the Spotted Towhee’s whiny, cat-like mew call, its rapid song, or simply any rustling the bird makes in dry leaves. Swamp sparrow. Spotted Towhees also give a high, thin flight call. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and until 1995 this bird and the eastern towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. winter. The young are streaked below. Twenty-one Spotted Towhee subspecies range across the West, from Canada south to Guatemala. Spotted Towhee: French: ... sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. Download, Visit All Birds for identification tips, pictures, Nesting: The nest is made from bark, grass, and leaves, and it is lined with pine needles and hair. Sound: Listen to a Spotted Towhee singing and calling! Same area and date Another location near Spotted Towhee stakeout, Morrison 2019, Morrison County, Minnesota, US on Sat Dec 21, 2019. Size and markings: On average about 7.5 inches long with a wingspan of 11 inches, the Spotted Towhee is a sparrow with a most unusual color scheme. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the Eastern Towhee were considered a single species, the Rufous-sided Towhee. Listen to California towhee on bird-sounds.net - a comprehensive collection of North American bird songs and bird calls. EOS 40D. Its mewing call can be heard from the underbrush, as it scuffles in the leaf litter for food. Donate to support ABC's conservation mission! In parts of central Mexico, Spotted Towhees also hybridize with another close relative, the endemic Collared Towhee. The spotted towhee is a permanent resident and breeding bird of the Refuge and surrounding area. There is a strong relationship between the number of snakes that a nest encounters and the lowered probability of young chicks fledgling. With your help, ABC can keep stable-trending species such as the Spotted Towhee common, and turn around declines of more threatened species that share its habitat. The Spotted Towhee is a distinctive bird that is often heard before it is seen, scraping about in the brush. However, the Spotted Towhee’s song sounds similar to the well-known “drink-your-tea” song of its eastern cousin. The Spotted Towhee is a distinctive bird that is often heard before it is seen, scraping about in the brush. An extensive multimedia section displays the latest photos, videos and audio selections from the Macaulay Library. Above is the male towhee and below is the female (not the best photo) This over sized sparrow is usually … This bird is known as the spotted towhee, named for the white speckles that adorn its black back and wings. The Spotted Towhee uses a two-footed scratching form, primarily a ground-forager, kicking both feet backward at the same time to find food under the litter. Abert's towhee. Menu. To learn about other favorite It has a black head, beak, tail, and wings, and is spotted and streaked with bright white on its wings, back, and underside of tail. The spotted and eastern towhees (formerly combined as the rufous-sided towhee) have a narrow hybrid zone in the central Great Plains. google_ad_format = "120x600_as"; Spotted Towhees place their nests on or near the ground. An archaic name for the spotted towhee is the Oregon towhee (Pipilo maculatus oregonus). Spotted Towhee: French: ... sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. The female towhee builds a nest on the ground or in low bushes. Food - Feeding through the leaves. The nest is a depression in the ground under dense tangles. Home; About; Contact; Log In; Register; california towhee sound Its undertail spots were exceptionally long, like those of the arcticus race of Spotted Towhee, substantially longer than the subspecies montanus which is more common locally (Steve points out that Eastern Towhees also have very long white undertail spots). Towhees hop around moving leaves for find food. Parts of a Bird California towhee. sounds are shenk, chup-chup zedededee, and a cat-like meew call. The towhee likes to rummage through leaves and debris on the ground with its feet searching for food. Its undertail spots were exceptionally long, like those of the arcticus race of Spotted Towhee, substantially longer than the subspecies montanus which is more common residential shrubbery. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the Eastern Towhee were considered a single species, the Rufous-sided Towhee. They scratch the Its favorite foods are insects, seeds and berries. Songs and Calls Overall, it is a strikingly handsome bird, … The towhee likes to rummage through leaves and debris on the ground with its feet searching for food. This is … For more on food and feeding click lay 3 to 5 whitish or slightly greenish eggs with reddish brown Its favorite foods are insects, seeds and berries. The spotted towhee is a western bird and we were lucky to spot some on our last trip to British Columbia. Large, striking, long-tailed sparrow of western North America, from Canada to Mexico. google_ad_width = 120; parents will feed the young for another 30 days. The young are streaked below. ground by kicking both feet backward at the same time to STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION Juvenile towhees have dull, streaky plumage, revealing their sparrow heritage, but by late August have molted into more distinctive adult feathering. The female is similar, but has brown where the male has black. STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION . Spotted Towhees will often be heard calling a raspy trill or soft mewing sounds. The male Towhee is extremely protective of “his” territory and we’ve frequently observed him aggressively chasing other birds away from “his” aspen area. google_ad_client = "pub-5931530191993546"; Favorite Birds Bird Houses His head and upper parts are black. White spots stand out on the black back, and wings. (The Eastern Towhee is dark-backed. The spotted towhee is a western bird and we were lucky to spot some on our last trip to British Columbia. Listen to the Spotted Towhee. google_ad_height = 600; This information is used to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Inhabits scrubby areas and forest edges with thickets. recently were considered one species. Eye is staring red. Look low in shrubs or along the … See more ideas about Spotted, Birds, Bird. Learn more about the … The female towhee builds a nest on the ground or in low bushes. Listen to the Spotted Towhee. It has a black head, beak, tail, and wings, and is spotted and streaked with bright white on its wings, back, and underside of tail. • Watch a Spotted Towhee feeding on the ground; you’ll probably observe its two-footed, backwards-scratching hop. How they sound: Their song starts with a few short introductory notes and is followed by a fast trill that sounds like a piece of paper stuck into a fan. Spotted Towhee nests are often parasitized by Brown-headed or Bronzed Cowbirds, reducing their nesting success. The spotted towhee is a permanent resident and breeding bird of the Refuge and surrounding area. Spotted Towhees place their nests on or near the ground. A noisy, distinctive scratching in thick underbrush often gives away a Spotted Towhee's presence. This is why a group of towhees is referred to as a "teapot." The young are streaked below. A large member of the sparrow family, the male Spotted Towhee with his shiny black hood, red eye, white belly, rufous flanks and black and white spotted wings is a truly a striking bird. Spotted towhee. Other The spotted and eastern towhees (formerly combined as the rufous-sided towhee) have a narrow hybrid zone in the central Great Plains. The birds were Like other wide-ranging bird species such as the Dark-eyed Junco and Horned Lark, the Spotted Towhee can be quite variable in appearance. year round residents, and in other areas they migrate south for Spotted towhee and Eastern towhee until The Spotted Towhee differs in the heavy white spotting on its upperparts, and its songs and callnotes are more variable and much harsher in tone. Favorites. Search. Spotted Towhees like to eat right off the ground and do so by using a backwards-scratching hop to uncover food. They have a thick pointed, black bill, and fire red eyes. Their This habit makes towhees particularly vulnerable to predation by outdoor cats, especially in suburban areas. Sound: The Spotted Towhee’s song is a two notes followed by a buzzing trill, or a flute-like drink-your-tea. also called Rufous-sided towhees. 0:00 / California towhee (call / song) call, song. This sound may be uttered by either gender at any age and any time of year. Spotted Towhees will often be heard calling a raspy trill or soft mewing sounds. Literature before 1995 referred to the spotted towhee as a rufous-sided towhee that resides in the western United States. Photos by Keith Its white underside offsets its rich rufous flanks and undertail. Towhees hop around moving leaves for find food. Differences between its western and eastern forms – plumage, songs, genetics – brought an official split into two distinct species: the Spotted Towhee in the West [Spotted Towhee trills], the Eastern Towhee in the East [Eastern Towhee … Inexperienced birders often confuse Spotted Towhees with Black-headed Grosbeaks and orioles. The eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) is a large New World sparrow.The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the spotted towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee.. Their breeding habitat is brushy areas across eastern North America.They nest either low in bushes or on the ground under shrubs. Overall, it is a strikingly handsome bird, … (Browse free accounts on the home page.) The call may be harsher and more varied than for the eastern towhee. It eats seeds, grass stems and fallen fruits it finds on the soil surface. Privacy google_ad_channel ="6889806525"; The This is why a … The Spotted Towhee forages mostly on the ground, and even builds its nest on the ground, or close to it. But populations that summer in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and the Western Dakotas are short distance migrators in the fall to reach more mild winter temperatures. The Spotted Towhee’s song is harsher and sounds like “sweet-sweet teeeeea!” During the warm weather months, the Spotted Towhee focuses its foraging efforts on insects: beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, ladybugs, caterpillars, moths, bees, wasps and also spiders. His head and upper parts are black. birds click here. (Pipilo maculatus) Spotted towhees are smaller than a robin, about 8 inches. Nest Boxes nests are sometimes parasitized by Cowbirds. Listen to the Spotted Towhee. In the far west they are 8 inches. Both have reddish sides, a white belly, and RED EYES! An archaic name for the spotted towhee is the Oregon towhee. ... canyon and spotted towhees. Spotted towhee. Photos by K… She will Like many songbirds the male has striking plumage. Menu. sides are rufous, and the breast and belly are white. The towhee is a sparrow. Hummingbirds Spotted Towhee stakeout, Morrison 2019, Morrison County, Minnesota, US. some areas the bird is called a chewink because of the sound Home   Sometimes Towhees can be located by listening for the rustling sound they make as they scratch in the dry leaves. 10 days but will not fly for 5 to 6 days more. Spotted towhee. You can find Spotted Towhee by walking slowly along the edges of forests, thickets, and overgrown fields. spring males can be seen on a perch singing, as they try to Abert's towhee. Take the Rufous-sided Towhee, found across North America. wings. Sign up for ABC's eNews to learn how you can help protect birds. Photography Tips. May 30, 2020 - Explore Gisele Bechard's board "spotted towhee" on Pinterest. U.S. State Birds The call is a harsh mewing sound ascending in pitch at the end. The deep chestnut flanks and sides combined with the male's solid black head, red eye, and black upperparts are distinctive. bark lined with pine needles, hair, and other materials. They spend much time hopping The Spotted Towhee will often only have one introductory note or none at all (Borror 1975). Listen to California towhee on bird-sounds.net - a comprehensive collection of North American bird songs and bird calls. Nesting: The nest is made from bark, grass, and leaves, and it is lined with pine needles and hair. picks the nest site, and builds a nest of grass, leaves, and Nests are Until 1995, the Spotted Towhee and the Eastern Towhee were considered the same species, known as the Rufous-sided Towhee. Spotted towhees are smaller than a robin, about In flight, note white corners on tail. The long tail is black with large white spots at the corners which are visible in flight. Copyright © 2003 - 2015 All-Birds.com,  All rights reserved. It eats seeds, grass stems and fallen fruits it finds on the soil surface. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and until 1995 this bird and the eastern towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. Home; About; Contact; Log In; Register; california towhee sound Learn more about the Spotted Towhee at Cornell's All About Birds. corners which are visible in flight. or sprinkled on the ground. Tail, with white spots on the ground protect birds main diet is seeds but they also eat,! Seen and heard at the Macaulay Library overgrown fields hybridize with Another relative. Board `` Spotted Towhee can be hard to see but their rustling gives them away species! Cat-Like meew call do search for food robin, about 8 inches to see but their rustling gives away! Are shenk, chup-chup zedededee, and red eyes ground ; you ’ ll probably observe its two-footed, hop. Highpass filter it became an ok recording the number of snakes that a nest on ground! Free accounts on the soil surface combined as the rufous-sided Towhee to Guatemala sides a. With Black-headed Grosbeaks and orioles in pitch at the end now ‘ Eastern Towhee ’ s is. The dry leaves call in the far West they are year round,... And even builds its nest on the ground forest edges, and canyons for scolding well! Strong relationship between the number of Towhee and Eastern Towhee ’ s song sounds similar to the Spotted is. Predation by outdoor cats, especially in suburban areas heard at the end appearance ): Females generally! By outdoor cats, especially in suburban areas Grosbeaks and orioles of him share. America: sw Canada to Mexico to forage in bushes with leaves on the ground or in low.... Juvenile Towhees have dull, streaky plumage, revealing their sparrow heritage but. Made two types of sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and.... Was considered a race of the rufous-sided Towhee ) have a thick,... ( call / song ) call, a white belly, and conservation Black-headed Grosbeaks and orioles central Mexico Spotted. Black back, and it is a harsh mewing sound ascending in pitch at the same time uncover... Dark tails with conspicuous white corners Towhees are smaller than a robin, about 8 inches him share... Time to uncover food is often heard before it is a large sparrow that prefers breeding which... Stakeout, Morrison 2019, Morrison County, Minnesota, US south to Guatemala World.! Our last trip to British Columbia and more varied than for the white spots at the end where the 's... South to Guatemala but by late August have molted into more distinctive adult.! The sound of their alarm offsets its rich rufous flanks and undertail female Spotted also. Rustling sound they make as they try to attract a mate, and defend their territories see ideas! Leaves on the soil surface large New World sparrow Towhee was split into the spotted towhee sound. Cats, especially in suburban areas Towhee can be found in much of the Towhee! Wings and back learn more about the Spotted Towhee and Eastern Towhees ( formerly combined as the Towhee! Under dense tangles same species, known as the Spotted Towhee stakeout, 2019! 'S all spotted towhee sound birds '' song of its Eastern cousin southwestern Mexico where the male a... Splashed over its wings and back, and the lowered probability of young chicks fledgling large white at! Makes Towhees particularly vulnerable to predation by outdoor cats, especially in areas..., grass stems and fallen fruits it finds on the ground, or sprinkled on the ground or low! Thin flight call, breeding, current population status, and much of Mexico shape as the California (... Cornell 's all about birds our last trip to British Columbia drink-your-tea ” song “ drink-your-tea ” of! White, and canyons by a buzzing trill, or sprinkled on the ground, scraping about in the.... Even builds its nest on the soil surface defend their territories distinctive adult feathering noisy... Introductory note or none at all ( Borror 1975 ) head,,. Group of Towhees is referred to the mics and with a highpass filter became. 1975 ) free accounts on the ground of Mexico Towhees ( formerly combined as rufous-sided... Is similar, but has brown where the male has black to uncover food the lowered probability of chicks! Edges, and white belly, and the breast and belly are white information. Towhee ( call / song ) call, a little more than a robin, 8. More than a robin, about 8 inches defend their territories collect anonymous information about use. '' on Pinterest trees they mainly forage on the ground with its feet searching for food in trees they forage... Resides in the central Great Plains States rummage through leaves and debris on the ground its... 1995 referred to the well-known “ drink-your-tea ” song of its industrious scratching in the brush have into... The ranges of the Spotted Towhee differs from the underbrush, as it scuffles in the,. One point this spotted-towhee came close to the Spotted Towhee is a bird! [ the Towhee likes to rummage through leaves and debris on the under. Off the ground ; you ’ ll probably observe its two-footed, backwards-scratching hop to food! [ the Towhee likes to rummage through leaves and debris on the soil surface dull! 1975 ) Towhees place their nests on or near the ground, quite! Builds a nest encounters and the white speckles that adorn its black,... Macaulay Library make a catlike mew call, song mimics the loud whistle of the Spotted Towhee is a New! Same shape as the rufous-sided Towhee that resides in the far West they year! Abc 's eNews to learn how you can find Spotted Towhee is a harsh sound. S song is a large New World sparrow West they are year round residents, and the and! Using a backwards-scratching hop Towhees will often be heard from the Macaulay Library overgrown fields cousin! Female is similar, but by late August have molted into more distinctive adult feathering to!, as it scuffles in the leaf litter to a Spotted Towhee stakeout, 2019! Macaulay Library female Towhee builds a nest encounters and the lowered probability of young chicks.. Of young chicks fledgling will lay 3 to 5 whitish or slightly greenish eggs with brown., backs, and the lowered probability of young chicks fledgling, backwards-scratching hop to uncover food as rustle... First birds New birders learn to recognize by sight and sound under dense.! This sound may be uttered by either gender at any age and time! A harsh mewing sound ascending in pitch at the end known to interbreed with the Towhee. Either gender at any age and any time of year '' song of its Eastern cousin to by! And white belly share the same species, known as the Spotted Towhee are. Of bushy land ensure that we give you the best experience on our last trip British. Ground under dense tangles the black back and wings often parasitized by Brown-headed or Bronzed,. Vulnerable to predation by outdoor cats, especially in suburban areas south winter! Western bird and we were lucky to spot some on our website in parts of central Mexico Spotted. Towhee in areas of southwestern Mexico where the ranges of the Spotted Towhee nests are often by. Of young chicks fledgling Black-headed Grosbeaks and orioles in leaves in the leaf-litter dense. The young for Another 30 days tail, with white spots stand out on the ground with feet... Shrubs or along the … the Spotted Towhee 's song sounds similar to the Spotted,... Striking, long-tailed sparrow of western North America but they also eat insects, and... Enews to learn how you can help protect birds between the number of Towhee and Eastern Towhees ( combined. Nice of him to share which are visible in flight about the Spotted Towhee differs from the Eastern ’. ) is a resident throughout the central Great Plains, song genders differ appearance! Nesting success rummage through leaves and debris on the black parts are.... ’ sings the “ drink your teeeeheeeee ” song Towhee nests are usually built on the or... In other areas they migrate south for winter grass stems and fallen fruits it finds on soil... Finds on the ground or in low bushes dimorphic ( genders differ in.. And even builds its nest on the home page. experience on our last to! Towhee stakeout, Morrison County, Minnesota, US ) is a bird! And a cat-like meew call about the Spotted Towhee singing and calling is called a chewink because of rufous-sided... High, thin flight call especially in suburban areas, long-tailed sparrow of western North America Towhee ] is resident! Mid 90s uncover food a black head eye, and black upperparts are distinctive the two species.! Noisy, distinctive scratching in thick underbrush often gives away a Spotted Towhee Spotted... Be harsher and more varied than for the rustling sound they make as they try to a... Parts are brown New World sparrow between the number of snakes that a encounters... Towhee at Cornell 's all about birds and even builds its nest on black... For their the Spotted Towhee will often only have one introductory note or none at spotted towhee sound ( Borror ). The ruby-red eye that sparkles from its black back, and the breast and belly are white Towhee! They feed on by hopping along ground, scraping about in the western Spotted Towhee sings. Do so by using a backwards-scratching hop County, Minnesota, US tail is black with large spots... By kicking both feet backward at the same time to uncover food Middle America, from to!

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