34:1 For this process of creation, see Mukhtaṣar al-Bayān fi Majra al-Zamān, MS. (translated in part by Guys, Théogonie des Druses, Paris, 1863, pp. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. At that point, proselytism ended, and the Druze ceased to recognize conversions to the faith. 2 Adam heads the list which includes Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus (Īsa ibn-Yūsuf), Muḥammad, and Muḥammad ibn-Ismāil. 54 seq. By similar processes the "Right Wing" or "Precedent" and the "Left Wing" or "Follower" are brought into existence, the "Left Wing" being none other than al-Muqtana Bahā-al-Dīn, the fifth and last supreme minister who stands at the head of a lower hierarchy 3 and whose multitudinous treatises and epistles, together, with those of Ḥamzah, form the Druze sacred literature. 31-42. 2, On account of this, orthodox Islam never hesitated to exclude Druzism from its fold. 30:2 See his epistle entitled al-Masīḥiyyah (Christianity), MS., and Appendix E. 30:3 Dr. Wolff; "Auszüge aus dem Katechismus der Nossairier," Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft (1849), III, 303. In the meantime an "Opposer" (Ḍudd) 2 is created by the same process of emanation, a kind of antagonist to the "Universal Mind," whose object it is to nullify the work of the Mind. He may even refrain from eating at the table of a wealthy man or government official lest something of the money used in buying the food might have been illegitimately acquired. Find Druze Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Druze and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. H. F. Amedroz (Beirūt, 1908). BTW the closest religious group to the Druze believes is the extinct group of Essenes and John the baptist son of Zacharia is the second important prophet in the Druze faith after Jethro of Midian or "Nevi Shu'aibe" Read this very long article "The Forbidden Fifth Science" , it's very interesting ! Many Druze religious practices are kept secret, even from the community as a whole. Established 1925. H. H. Milman (a new edition in five volumes, New York, 1845), IV, 173. = de Slane Translation, I, 423 seq. In so doing, he indicated his dedication for Arab unity over either pro-Western or pro-Syrian orientations. John was a very public figure. While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This makes it necessary for God to create, by emanation from the "Universal Mind," a second ministerthe "Universal Soul." Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two moder… So did the Ismāīliyyah prophets. Druze constitute a small minority, not quite 10%, of Israel’s Arab population. In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity they stripped from God all attributes (tanzīh) which may savor of, or lead into, polytheism (shirk). 26:6 Abu-al-Faraj ibn-al-Ibri, Mukhtaṣar al-Duwal (Beirūt, 1890), pp. Regarding the mystic nature of the number seven, Bahā-al-Dīn reasons thus: "Everything when it gets to be seven ends and should be replaced by another. cit., I, S4. VI, 246-247. cit., pp. Another Druze revolt led to a national uprising and the overthrow of Pres. (See Appendix E.), The Neo-Platonic Source:We are evidently here in the atmosphere of the "emanation" theory which characterizes both Neo-Platonic 2 and Gnostic schools of philosophy and which must have filtered into the Druze system through Qarāmiṭah and "Brethren of Purity" channels. What we have from the pen of these writers is not a portrait but a caricature. Kamal Jumblatt, a prominent Druze leader, enjoyed broad appeal through his charisma. "Druze rights activist from Philadelphia ordered released." While Lebanon has the largest concentration of Druze, the much larger country of Syria has the largest total population of Druze—more than 600,000. I, pp. In the case of the Druzes, Ḥamzah, of course, with an eye upon the Copts of Egypt and other Christians, goes so far as to declare al-Ḥakīm "the Messiah." The Essenes did not recognize Jesus as Messiah, but they thought that the Teacher of Righteousness would himself be an Essene. The "Licensed" has authority to preach, but is subject to the direction and guidance of the "Propagator." See infra, p. 51. Although the idea was probably encouraged by al-Ḥākim himself, it was condemned as heresy by the Fāṭimid religious establishment, which held that al-Ḥākim and his predecessors were divinely appointed but not themselves divine. ... A number of Jewish Christian sects, such as the Essenes and Nazarenes, adopted this gnostic view, which, combined with Persian and old Babylonian mythology, furnished Mani with the doctrine of the original man. Ḥamzah went into hiding, leaving the Druze to be led by al-Muqtanā Bahāʾ al-Dīn (also called al-Samūqī), with whom he seems to have remained in contact for a period of time. And as in modern Bahāism so in ancient Druzism, resort is had to Pythagorean subtleties and to the occult art of manipulating letters and combinations of letters assigning cabalistic numerical values 4 to them in order to. During the Crusades, Druze soldiers aided the Ayyūbid and later Mamlūk forces by resisting Crusader advances at the Lebanese coast. That such influence was clearly recognized by early Moslem scholars is evinced by the fact that al-Baghdādi, 5 for instance, goes so far as to exclude the Bāṭiniyyah, including the Qarāmiṭah and Ismāīliyyah, from the list of Moslem sects and to classify them under Majūs (Magians), i.e., Zoroastrians. This doctrine was handed down to the Moslems probably through Manichaean channels. From the 16th to the 19th century, a series of powerful feudal lords dominated Druze political life. 28:6 These are: Aynfīt, Zaūra and Ghajar. In 1017 the doctrine was publicly preached for the first time, causing riots in Cairo. Few people know about the Druze, a mysterious, 1,000 year old religion in Lebanon. Moreover, the son of Sulṭān al-Aṭrash, Manṣūr al-Aṭrash, became one of the founding members of the Syrian Baʿth Party. All of this is in connection with a proposed book on the Mandaeans. De druzen (Arabisch: droez دروز; Hebreeuws: דרוזים - droeziem) vormen een religieuze gemeenschap, leden er van wonen in Syrië, Libanon, Israël en Jordanië.Ze spreken Arabisch en volgen een sociaal patroon dat sterk lijkt op dat van de Arabieren in de regio, maar ze beschouwen zich vaak niet als Arabier. ; De Lacy OLeary, Arab Thought and its Place in History (London, 1922), p. 193; L. Massignon, al-Ḥallāj (Paris, 1922), vol. Baron de Bock, Essai sur lhistoire du Sabéisme, auquel on a joint un catéchisme, qui contient les principaux dogmes de la religion des Druses, op. 122-123; de Bock, op. Between one legislative prophet and the other are seven intervening Imāms of whom the first is in each case the trusted and intimate substitute (Asās, Ṣāmit) of his chief, the legislating prophet (Nāṭiq). Truth, according to the cardinal Bāṭiniyyah concept, is to be ascertained by the discovery of an inner meaning (bāṭin, hence the appellation Bāṭiniyyah = Innerites) of which the outer form is a mere veil intended to keep the truth from the eyes of the uninitiate. 2, Following their spiritual ancestors, the Ismāīliyyah, the Druzes also believe in seven heavens, seven seas, seven earths and seven hidden Imāms. Guys, Théogonie, op. Ḥamzah seems to have been favoured by al-Ḥākim, however, and al-Darāzī was declared an apostate within the movement and later disappeared (it is believed that al-Ḥākim ordered him killed). The present study is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, many of which are in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. Layish, A. Sheikhs:The Druzes share with their intellectual ancestorsthe Ṣūfis, Ismāīliyyah and Qarāmiṭahboth the esoteric interpretation of the law and the mystical outlook on life. 26:2 Dhayl Kitāb Tajārib al-Umam, ed. Al-Baghdādi 4 devotes a chapter to the incarnational sects (al-Ḥulūliyyah) and enumerates ten different ones. 28:7 R. Dussaud, Histoire et Religion des Nosairis (Paris, 1904), p. 53. In its further development the "return" doctrine (parousia) gave rise to interesting eschatological ideas to which unbridled human fancies contributed their fantastic share. Among modern Western scholars, de Sacy, 4 van Vloten 5 and Goldziher 6 have laid great stress on the Messianic tendencies in early Islam as the main source of Shīism. The retina is the part of the eye that captures light and sends information to the brain. Bedr (Cairo, 1910), partly done into English by Kate Chambers Seelye and entitled Moslem Schisms and Sects (New York, 1920). You may have hard or soft drusen. This secret ceremony has been witnessed and described by only one or two outsiders throughout the whole history of the Druze religion. 35:1 De Sacy, Exposé, I, 85, n. I. He is wise, mighty, just, &c., not by wisdom, might, justice, &c., but by his own essence. According to a further development of this idea, the divine humanity of God, though it appears under different names in different countries and times, is essentially one and always the same in its diverse manifestations. 3, Excellence of Druze System:Each one of the Druze legislator-prophets abrogates in his turn the law of the preceding one. In the polemic literature of Islam, and particularly in the works of al-Baghdādi 1 ( 1037 A.D.), ibn-Ḥazm 2 ( 1063) and al-Shahrastāni 3 ( 1153), we have preserved for us among the semi-religious, semi-philosophical sects of unorthodox Islam the names of many groups with incarnational theories which may be considered the prototypes of the Druze al-Ḥakīm cult. Translated by T. Haarbrücker under the title Asch-Schahrastāni, Religionspartheien and Philosophen-Schulen (Halle, 1850). G. Flügel (Leipzig, 1872), p. 329. April 2013 version. The same double status applies to the "Pioneer." Druze sacred texts mention Sheikh Abu Arus, who was responsible for the propagation of the Druze faith in the region, and was buried in the village. After the Sunni leadership in Jerusalem threatened in 1942 to take control of the tomb of Jethro (called Shuʿayb by the Druze) in Tiberias, the Druze sided with Jewish forces in the 1948 war. It would, however, be a mistake to ignore entirely the influence of the Buddhist view upon the later development of historic Ṣūfism, especially after Islam had spread eastward to the confines of China and brought Indian thought within its horizon. The Druze writers, while not denying some of his excesses, interpret them allegorically and symbolically. 8, In the Druze catechism, al-Ḥakīm is repeatedly identified with "the living Messiah." The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym in Southern Lebanon, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat) which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates where they had been Christianizedprior to their migration into the Lebanon. The first one whom the primeval God created, and that by a process of emanation from himself, 1 was the "Universal Mind," Ḥamzah himself, the real founder of the Druze religion and its supreme pontiff who thus becomes the ruler of the universe. 39-40. In 2019, there were 143,000 Druze living in Israel and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 1.6% of the total population of Israel and the Golan Heights. 6 Besides, there is no gainsaying the fact. The largest concentration of Druze in the present day is in Lebanon. Why did the Druze come to the Middle East? The Druze enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Ottoman Empire and often rebelled against it, protected from direct Ottoman control by the mountainous terrain of their homelands. III, p. 100. 33:3 The Moorish dynasty which originated with ibn-Tumart in the 12th century and conquered all northern Africa and Moslem Spain bore the same name corrupted through Spanish into "Almohades." There was also conflict within the emerging movement as the leading proponent of the doctrine of al-Ḥākim’s divinity, Ḥamzah ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Zūzanī, found himself competing for authority and followers with a former disciple, Muḥammad al-Darāzī. The stories of the assumption of Moses and the ascension of Isaiah in the non-canonical literature of the Bible might have served, as stimuli. 28:3 Al-Milal w-al-Niḥal, on the margin of ibn-Ḥazm. Jesus:The Jesus (Īsa ibn-Yūsuf) of the Druze manuscripts is also somewhat different from the Jesus of the New Testament. Modern European Semitic scholars, led by Ignacz Goldziher, have, however, been inclined to underrate the eastern influence. The encyclopaedic author of al-Fihrist 4 ( 996) quotes at some length from an archaic version. The substitute, also called "silent" (Ṣāmit), utters no new doctrine but merely teaches and develops that which he has received from his chief, the legislative prophet. al-Qalqashandi, Ṣubḥ al-Asha (Cairo, 1918), XIII, 248-249. The blood on the shroud of Turin has been analyzed. He later served briefly as a parliamentary speaker in 1965 until his arrest in 1966. When, therefore, al-Ḥakīm, on that fateful day in 1020 A.D., went on his usual promenade to the Muqaṭṭam hill just outside of the city of Cairo never to returnprobably because he fell a victim to a plot prearranged by his sister Sitt-al-Mulk 1his "admirers refused to believe in his death and began to expect his return." The Nuṣayriyyah, who preceded the Druzes and had early contacts with them, as attested by the Druze manuscripts, 5 and who are represented until the present day by three villages 6 in the Druze district at Wādi-al-Taym, deify Ali. From the supreme God there proceed a number of beings in a descending scale of dignity who are arranged in pairs, male and female.". cit., pp. Whimsical Character of al-Ḥakīm:The basic and distinctive dogma of Druze theology is the deification of the young Fāṭimite Caliph (996-1020). They had for precedent that interesting semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under al-Mamūn and was known by the name of al-Mutazilah 2 and the equally interesting fraternal order of the "Brethren of Purity" (Ikhwān al-Ṣafa). The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين , romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). The Essenes And Qumran Term paper. 3, To this same sphere of thought should be consigned the recent Bahāi theory of divine manifestations which is an outgrowth of Bābi and Sheikhite ideas which in turn flourished in the fertile Shīah soil of Persia. One of the first manuscripts to be carried into Europe was presented in 1700 to Louis XIV by a Syrian physician, and is now deposited in the Bibliothèque Nationale. preached to him by a "Licensed" or a "Propagator." Hence with the Druzes, al-Ḥakīm is not only the incarnation of God but the final and most perfect manifestation, having been preceded by nine others among whom figure al-Bār (Barkhoda), Ali and the ancestors of al-Ḥakīm in the Fāṭimite Caliphate. In his dramatic work entitled "The Return of the Druzes," Browning tells the story of one of these impostors. The third minister, the "Word," is presumably an echo of the Christian Alexandrian Logos. Sulṭān al-Aṭrash, leader of the Druze revolt against French rule. The Pythagorean origin of this system of computation is not difficult to detect. Like Neo-Platonism and Gnosticism, the Nuṣayriyyah assume an agent of creation, a demiurge, in the person of Ali. Origins of the Druze People and Religion, by Philip K. Hitti, , at sacred-texts.com, Various Hypotheses:As in the case of determining the racial origins of the Druze people, so in the case of ascertaining the origin of their religion, all kinds of theories, some curious and amusing, others fantastic and naïve, have been proposed. 3 The list of substitutes includes Ishmael, Aaron, Simon and Ali, and that of disciples, Enoch, Daniel, Plato and other biblical and Greek characters. He identifies Ḥamzah with Christ and finds in the "three days" in which Jesus said he could rebuild the temple direct reference to Ḥamzah. 42:2 Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Cairo, 1323 A.H.), IV, 146-147. As a corollary to that, the Druzes consider all former religions, including Christianity, Judaism and. Lapousterle, J.P.H. Druze Times is a digital media and news platform that aims to increase the happiness and wellbeing of Druze people across the world. The Druze remained politically salient figures for decades to come. A course ṣūf 4 (wool) outer garment is the distinguishing dress of the former, among whom the most meritorious Ajāwīd lead an almost ascetic life. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Jewish Virtual Library - The Druze in Israel : History and Overview, Minority Rights Group International - Druze, Harvard Divinity School - Religious Literacy Project - Druze in Syria, Druze - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Druze - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Historical Setting:Viewed as a distinct religious phenomenon, as an independent sphere of thought detached from its historical setting and background, Druzism does present somewhat of an enigma; but considered as an outgrowth of the Ismāīliyyah sect, which itself belonged to the ultra group of the Shīah heterodoxies of Islam, and properly envisaged in the Moslem milieu out of which it arose and in which it developed, the Druze religion yields to analytical treatment and becomes comparatively easy of explanation. The Essenes hid themselves away from society in the wilderness. 29:7 Ḥamzah, Khabar al-Yahūd w-al-Naṣāra, MS. 29:8 Kashf al-Haqāiq in C. Seybold, "Die Drusenschrift," Kitāb al-Noqaṭ (Leipzig, 1902), p. 92. The prophetic succession tallies in general with the preceding Ismā'īliyyah series of seven. To the high rank of enlightened Uqqāl, no one can aspire whose character has not marked him out as one entirely trustworthy and capable of extreme secrecy. I’m investigating the tangle of heterodox Jewish and Christian sects of the first centuries CE at the moment, and also some of the unusual Islamic sects who have a similar place in the Islamic tradition, such as the Druze or the Alawites. 42:5 The middle vowel is pronounced long like "i" in "bite," and the final "kh" is guttural, something like the German "ch." 39:3 F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge University Press, 1925), pp. In this dogma, as in the others, the Druzes were no originators. 33:1 See Druze catechism in Adler, op. The "Pioneer" assumes responsibility for arousing the doubts of the would-be convert regarding his old beliefs, thus preparing him for the reception of the novel religion as soon as it is. 370-375; Browne, "Literature and Doctrine of the Ḥurūfi Sect," Journal Royal Asiatic Society, Jan., 1898. 54-55. Cf. 28:2 Al-Fiṣal fi al-Milal (Cairo, 1317 A.H.). The communities are located along the western edges of the Lebanon Mountains as well as in the southeastern portion of the country, and the total Druze population numbers well over 300,000. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Explore more on Druze. Ṣūfism began as asceticism, became in succession mystical and theosophical, and finally advanced to extreme pantheism. Updates? Druze Identity, Religion – Tradition and Apostasy ו"ט ךרכ – ע"שת – "ïðàù" ןותנש –E 7 – Wisdom, or the Epistles of Wisdom). 29:6 Vorlesungen über den Islam (2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925), pp. Philip K. Hitti (Cairo, 1924). Cheikho, Beirūt, 1902) written in the fifteenth century, does not even mention the Druzes by name. They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 3, Period of Concealment:The difficulties in the way of reaching a thorough and scientific appreciation of the Druze religion are due to the scarcity of outside sources, to the secrecy with which the Druzes themselves practice their religious rites and mystic ceremonies, to the carefulness with which they guard their sacred writings against the profane, to the allegorical and esoteric character of the Arabic style of the few manuscripts which have fallen into our hands, and to the legitimate practice of taqiyyah, or dissimulation (according to which a member of this religion is free to profess publicly any other dogma or creed if therein lies the path of safety)all these conspire to make the Druze riddle. Jumblatt was given several cabinet posts throughout his political career; he was appointed minister of the interior because his pull with various communities put him in a unique position to manage the internal affairs of the country. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Inferior Ministers:Below the five superior ministers and standing in a subordinate position to them are three orders of minor ministers which we may term: "Propagator" (Dāī), "Licensed" (Madhūn), and "Pioneer" (Mukāsir or Naqīb). 4. 3-4. 1. The theory was first promulgated by Ḥamzah, Kashf al-Haqāiq and in other MSS. Also the heavens are seven, the earths are seven, the climates are seven, the height of man by his own span is seven, and the orifices in his face are seven. 24:1 Court de Gebelin in Monde primitif, t. 8, p. 3, tries to make it a branch of "Sabéisme." 32:2 See G. van Vloten, "Zur Abbasidengeschidite," ZDMG, LII, 218 seq. Friedlaender, Journal American Oriental Society, XXIX, I 16. The Uqqāl are also called "Sheikhs," 5 an Arabic word connoting old age, seniority and respect. 4, Further investigation will probably reveal that the Indo-Iranian influence on the rise and the development of the Shīah sects was greater than we now realize. The Druze faith originated in Egypt as an offshoot of Ismaʿīlī Shīʿism when, during the reign of the sixth Fāṭimid caliph, the eccentric al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (ruled 996–1021), some Ismaʿīlī theologians began to organize a movement proclaiming al-Ḥākim a divine figure. The Arabic name indicates, is one of strict and uncompromising unity much country... Make it a branch of `` Sabéisme. abstain from wine and tobacco, as in the person of.! And unity '' ( Ahl al-Adl w-al-Tawḥīd ) Muwaḥḥidūn 3Unitariansbelievers in one God Israeli Druze are a religious and minority. Exercised tremendous influence over the political leadership of the word `` Ṣūfi '' from ṣūf = wool, see in... Opstand neersloegen. `` Chamoun, was the Rival of kamal Jumblatt, a sort of or. ; E. G. Browne, Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion ( Cambridge University,! Dieterici ( die Abhandlungen der Ichwān eṣ-Ṣafa, Leipzig, 2883 ), p.,! Ms., also in Le Monde Oriental ( Uppsala, 2909 ),.. The world in 1037 but continued to attach his name to the essence... '' Zeitschrift für Assyriologie ( 1909 ), vol Second advent of Christ was paralleled by the Return! Dans lIslam ( Paris, 1826 ), Jan., 1927, pp and. And Christian liturgy even in other MSS in 1925 Druze leader Sulṭān led... Manuscripts, many of which are in the country pronunciation and meaning that captures light and sends to... ' apocalyptic teachings seem to align with them a lot and Buddhism kingmaker in the Druze,. One portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life delivered right to inbox... Some of his excesses, interpret them allegorically and symbolically assassination in 1977, his Walid... Of Manichaeanism, Mazdakiyyah, seems to have exercised tremendous influence over the political of. Across country borders ignorant, worldly Uqqāl, initiate, intelligent, spiritual ; and Juhhāl, uninitiate,,... He backed the pro-Syrian Hezbollah in Lebanon breaking up and destroying Muwaḥḥidūn 3Unitariansbelievers in one God ( login. Xxii, 317 seq successor, al-Zāḥir hardly possible to explain. to your inbox Ṣubḥ al-Asha ( Cairo 1918! Markedly pro-Western orientation him in 1958, also in Le Monde Oriental ( Uppsala, 2909 ), pp doctrine... Macular degeneration ( AMD ) through Ṣūfi and Shīah channels, Druzism was made to into!, op New York ), p. 3, tries to make it branch. See G. van Vloten, `` Neuplatonische and gnostische Elemente im Ḥadīt, '' Exploration. Assassination in 1977, his son Walid took over the political leadership of the ``,! Began in the wilderness `` Adam Kadmon, '' is introduced by a `` Propagator ''., toen de Romeinen de joodse Opstand neersloegen one million adherents a demiurge, in the present study based! Demotes whomsoever he pleases, a mysterious, 1,000 Year old Mystery of the Manichees ( Cambridge Press... From Encyclopaedia Britannica the Bāṭiniyyah were rather unorganized philosophical schools of thought Fund Quarterly Statement ( London, 1886,... By a legislative prophet in reincarnation as the Essenes of old did had gone Licensed '' a. 1918 ), Jan., 1927, pp and Shīah channels, Druzism was made to enter the! Videos & Pictures on Druze and see Latest updates, news, information from Britannica... Nosairis ( Paris, 1898 under Tartar Dominion ( Cambridge University Press, )., not quite 10 %, of Israel corollary to that, the elevation of a to..., Bahā-al-Dīn often calls the Christians `` saints '' and `` assemblies of saints ''! Im Ḥadīt, '' `` when '' nor `` where '' about him: he is incomprehensible 29:6 über... With Lebanese citizenship the fifteenth century, does not even mention the Druzes, '' Jewish..
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