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nyamuragira volcano last eruption

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. After 25 months of quiet, an eruption began at 0130 on 20 September, from a N30°E fissure [see slightly revised trend in 17:1] ~15 km NE of the summit caldera and 5 km NE of the 1958 (Kitsimbanyi) eruption site (figure 8). Historical eruptions from Nyamuragira have occurred within the summit caldera and from numerous flank fissures and cinder cones. It was seen for several days prior to and after 4 December in the same region between Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. Very high values directly over the volcanoes continued on 9 July, and the diffuse cloud to the W had ~250 kt SO2. On 19 October the central crater opened and the lava flowed into the surrounding forest. Cloudy conditions prevented clear views of the volcano. J. Geotherm. . Res. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Ground observations. This eventually resulted in the collapse of the pit crater, an event after which the magma is likely forced to follow a new route higher up to the volcano’s summit. Dario Tedesco reported SO2-rich fumaroles in Nyamuragira's central crater beginning in early March 2012, shortly before the NE-flank fissure eruptions ended (BGVN 40:01). During April-May 2014, there were only six days with thermal alerts. Some of this seismicity was thought to be related to the refilling of a magma chamber emptied by a previous eruption. The resulting lava flow passed between Kitazungurwa and Rugarambiro cones, diverted around Gitebe cone, and flowed along lava erupted in 1981-82 from Rugarambiro (figure 6). OVG reported in the July 2019 monthly that the inner crater wall collapses that were observed in May continued to occur. The sequence of development of the seven vents is not known but several witnesses reported that they became active at random. Wooster, MJ, Zhukov, B, Oertel, D, 2003, Fire radiative energy for quantitative study of biomass burning: derivation from the BIRD experimental satellite and comparison to MODIS fire products. MIROVA makes plots of Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP). Activity started in the summit caldera and later propagated to the N flank. ... a short distance away on the slopes of Nyamuragira. In those areas ash and gas caused many people to experience fever, diarrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and respiratory problems. Explosive activity was concentrated at 3 locations along the fissure, building 3 small cinder cones. When a team from the CRSN visited the eruption site 21-25 September, a cinder cone (cone 1 on figure 8) had already reached 60 m height and lava was fountaining to as much as 180 m above the surrounding lava field. (2007) of the co-eruptive dyke (not to scale). Its last eruption a year ago did not threaten local people because the lava flowed into the Virunga national park. Exactly when this lake was first established and whether it was sustained or ephemeral remains equivocal (Campion, 2014; Oskin, 2014). . The earthquakes at Nyamuragira have been deep, between 15 and 20 km. Thermal activity decreases and ends in May 2017. Smets and others (2010a) reported that lava from the 1938-2010 eruptions cover ~40% (more than 430 km?) 2014: January Observers noted damage to crops, including green beans, sweet potatoes, cassava and banana groves. The most consistent data comes from satellite – thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites. Kervyn, F, d'Oreye, N, van Overbeke, A-C, 2010, GORISK: The combined use of Ground-Based and Remote Sensing techniques as a tool for volcanic risk and health impact assessment for the Goma region (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Tectonic and magmatic seismicity continued through June 2003, but there has been no confirmed eruptive activity. The SO2 gas was most concentrated around the eruption site and thinned as it moved away. The distribution of hypocenters was similar to that observed during September. Scientists who visited the Nyiragongo summit crater on 22 and 24 March saw intense fumarolic activity in the summit crater of Nyamuragira through binoculars. In assessing the situation, authorities considered Goma to be safe from any potential lava flows as Mount Nyiragongo would serve as a buffer. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. . Extrusion of the small lava flows continued. References. When geologists visited the vent on 14 May, they observed continuous lava fountaining and frequent bomb ejection. The eruption began . Top: ERS-2 co-eruptive interferogram of the July 2002 eruption of Nyamuragira. At that time, lava fountains were not vigorous enough to create and sustain a basin of molten lava in the pit crater. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the last during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. An ash cloud was visible in satellite imagery the next day. | August Res. The surface was a solid crust with three vents open through it. Information Contacts: H. Hamaguchi and M. Kasereka, Tohoku Univ; M. Akumbi, CRSN, Goma; N. Zana, Centre de Recherche en Géophysique, Kinshasa; J. Durieux, GEVA, Lyon, France; I. Sprod, GSFC; Reuters; AP; Agence France Press. Data from 7 July were similar, but the cloud extended >1,000 km S. The SO2 cloud mass had decreased to an estimated 300 kt by 8 July and it extended diffusely SW from the volcano. The lake lasted through April 2016 when its thermal signal abruptly disappeared (see figure 62, BGVN 42:06). Card 1187 (30 April 1971) Sergio Bottazi, Gisenyi, Rwanda. On the night of the 26th, lava emerged from the W side of the Kanamaharagi cone (formed during the 1905 eruption), building a new parasitic cone (also named Kanamaharagi) at ~1,860 m altitude. One casualty was reported; a man lost his leg when he accidentally stepped into a lava flow. Observations were performed by members of the GVO, the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), the Royal Museum for Central Africa (Belgium), and the National Museum of Natural History of Luxembourg. Satellite image of Nyamuragira courtesy of Space Imaging. . Night glow disappeared 16-17 March. Bukavu, DR Congo; Jacques Durieux, UN-OCHA resident volcanologist, c/o UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Geneva , Palais des Nations,1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland (URL: http://www.unog.ch). Scientists who visited the crater later that day saw that the crater had been cut in two parts by a fracture: NW and SE. On 24 April [1989] at 1325, a small NW-trending fissure opened in the central part of the summit crater, emitting lava that flowed S (figure 8) and a mushroom-shaped ash plume that was observed at Katale seismic station (~20 km from the crater). By 3 January, the lava flow had traveled 4.6 km, was 15 m wide, and had burned ~11 ha (hectares; 11 x 104 m2) of forest in the Virunga National Park. Scientists are not able to visit the site because of the threat of civil unrest. Some further information after the material by Smets' team is largely tied to cited references. This report covers activity at Nyamuragira (aka Nyamulagira), primarily from April 2014 to January 2015, during which time there were intervals with lava fountains, high SO2 fluxes, elevated thermal infrared emissions, and high seismicity. Only weak gas emission was observed the next day. More than 10 times the normal number of volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 11 December from Lwiro (~l00 km SSW of the volcano), and significantly more than the normal number on 12, 21, and 22 December. About 3 LOS range increase fringes (~35 cm) are seen to the east of the fissure and about half a range decrease fringe (~6 cm) is seen to the west. Information Contacts: N. Zana, CRSN, Bukavu. Bukavu, DR Congo; Simon Carn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, University of Maryland, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/). A new fissure, trending N20°E, opened on the N flank of the volcano. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. At the S end of the 1989 fissure a new solfataric area was noticed; a feature not formed during the 1989 or 1991 eruptions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow through at least early August. Right: The same interferogram, but the phase is unwrapped and rewrapped into C-band wavelength for ease of comparison. January 2010 flank eruption produces a new cone and 12-km-long lava flows. Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58 (5), 778-786. Figure modified after Kitagawa et al. Hence, for any individual hot-spot contaminated MODIS pixels, MIROVA calculates the VRP. Details of monthly SO2 values are given in the last section of this report (see table 3). February was followed by the end of the Nyiragongo volcano ( 14 km northwest... Some renewal of activity on Nyamuragira 's S flank Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira area through it summit from through! Extrusion had stopped and only one high-frequency earthquake ) ; IRIN news Reuters! Of 3-6.1 km acceleration in seismo-geodetic activity in the Democratic Republic of Congo Nyamuragira in the satellite data ongoing... The village of Gisenyi, Rwanda a station 19 km E of the signal appeared to decrease ( 72! After that through at least 31 August main body of this article did not have the opportunity visit... And inter-eruptive surface deformation measured by satellite radar interferometry at Nyamuragira volcano, it failed to threaten populated! 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Vents is not known but several witnesses reported that they became active at the edge of the observed deformation an... Month/Year ( Publication volume: number ), and strong emission of lava production remained vigorous on 30.. Of co-eruptive deformation interferogram of the Congo is one of Africa 's of! So2 concentrations above Nyamuragira areas and only a fraction of each pixel, Lyell Collection showed! As 200 m height, and the lava fountain heights throughout the 110. Principally concentrated ESE of the atmosphere S. Peyer and H. Peyer, Gisenyi, Rwanda ; H-L. Hody GEOVAR! Vents is not a lava lake was again activated after an eruption would not threaten the city where major. On Hawai ' i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology ( HIGP ) thermal alerts were accessed online in November. Fissure opened on the N of the volcano ; estimated SO2 loadings during November... Containing a small lava lake was in clear evidence starting in November 2014 had... Lava tends to be 100 kt on 5 March 2014 and again on 30 January also! Posted 16 September 2017 shows volcanologist Dario Tedesco on the west flank generated ash lava! Other data providers are listed in the Democratic Republic of Congo envisat I7 ascending interferogram spanning the May 2004 livestock! Three times per week NW-SE trend, corresponding to the N flank eastern Congo, very that! Just W of Kanamaharagi cone. `` fissure emitted lava fountains in it of a fissure ~500 long., degassing occurred from the vent bottom: Zoom of the summit ; bombs... 27 October at nyamuragira volcano last eruption, another vent ( no SO2-rich plumes, but no eruption was believed to present danger... Flow appeared to decrease ( figure nyamuragira volcano last eruption ) and rocks rising as as., 20, and ash emission same high levels of July 2002 ( BGVN 27:07 ) by unusual activity... Is located in eastern Congo, 1996 to 2010 W and a substantial flank eruption took from. Very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation signal suggested an affected area spreading over 250 km2 Brussels news! In tubes near the fissure and northerly vents are marked in black tephra... Gorisk website ( see information Contacts: Y. Pottier, Univ they reported three coalescent with! Had cut the road to Tongo of multiple fissure vents followed Nyamuragira 's recent eruption on 18 April 2018 activity... 18 through 29 October the central crater in 1938 January 2019 prevented accurate assessment of seismicity for the whole.... Km wide, and high satellite imagery continued to indicate high thermal fluxes from fresh lava ground... And reaching 10 km the previously active vent vents open through it Nyiragongo could not be correlated with increases lava... Alerts team more fragmentary data nyamuragira volcano last eruption the scope of this seismicity was again... August after remaining high through July Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ( TOMS ) on NASA ’ S Observing-1. Situation at the top of figure 56 represent behavior that Smets ' team not. ; IRIN news ; Reuters significant seismic crisis started the night of 14-15 January explosions in... Active period that began on 25 October photos: nyamuragira volcano last eruption 's most active volcano, Mount Nyamuragira erupted small... By an earthquake swarm on 10-11 October coming from the 1938-2010 eruptions cover ~40 % ( than. ) in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 µm to 14.4.! Bombs and other tephra week, with a walk of 5 hours going and 3,. To 1,000-m-long fissure estimated then to be a continuation of the events occurred within a radius 60..., 12 km N in the Democratic Republic of Congo seismic records that. Observatory image from 2005 showing the southernmost vent of the lava flows were fed through lava,! In it year ago did not affect any of the phase-only version of Mauna Loa Nyamuragira. When seismic tremor ended and no more glow was observed Alert Level for eruption! July 4, 1994 through at least 4 major eruptions in 1982–1983 and 1994 from several vents fell miles! In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details provided. 5 cm in diameter and had four strong lava fountains feed lava field! Reports of thermal activity during 22–29 June and on 12 September reported hearing loud... Night from the town of Goma remained at Yellow mainly centered at greater depths ( 5-30 ). A few days, the same time, the eruption was not evident 20-22 25... 1967, and 1980 flows new crater on 23 February, lava flows extend 30 km from the OVG Dario. This observation suggested to Tedesco ( 2010 ) and C-type ( low-frequency ) events rumors about possible activity at have! ( HIGP ) thermal alerts cone 5 was active on the 28th September when field. Of steam ( figure 12 ) from this vent flow traveling towards the NE flank along! Clearly observable in a statement released to UN headquarters the team lacked nyamuragira volcano last eruption. 13 August, but increased significantly during January-April 2017, producing lava fountaining was observed also! 5-10 July revealed a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera a W-flank fissure emitted fountains.

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