boards of education, state legislatures, other teacher preparation programs, faculty in the disciplines, state superintendents of schooling, and education research. An analysis of teacher education and development policies in a smaller group of countries that participated in TIMSS (the United States, Australia, England, Honk Kong, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, and Singapore) provides a more detailed analysis (Wang et al., 2003). MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. The list is different for alternative certification programs. Tests were based on individual authors’ views of what constituted professional knowledge, which might include geography or mathematics facts or moral views (Sedlak, 2008). The evaluation should also include an assessment of the near- and long-term effects of these mechanisms on key processes and, especially, K-12 student outcome measures. In particular, as stronger indicators are developed, states and independent associations that are involved in teacher education program approval and accreditation will be able to use them as a basis for their accreditation standards and reviews. Accountability is an assurance that an individual or an organization will be evaluated on their performance or behavior related to something for which they are responsible. For example, states use different cutoff scores even when using the same test. Accountability involves three elements; what action is your employee agreeing to, when will they do it, and how will you know they accomplished it? As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Education technology, connected learning, and the rise of a networked society are transforming the established concept of learning, teachersâ roles, and even the nature of knowledge itself. For example, 42 require that candidates who wish to teach at the elementary or primary level earn a degree from a teacher education program, and more than 40 require some sort of practicum (opportunity to apply what was taught in the classroom). Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. 3.1. Indeed, in some states the connection is explicit: for example, the subject-matter content standards for Florida teachers are designed to undergird both the state’s ongoing approval processes for teacher education programs and the content of the subject-specific certification examinations required for full licensure. Data available on the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality website indicates that each state develops its own policy (see http://www2.tqsource.org/prep/policy/index.asp [December 2009]). This is not a requirement for teacher education programs, though individual states can mandate it, requiring either state program review or accreditation by a national body (National Research Council, 2001). Read on to learn more about this field. Instructional Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning  – Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Central to state review and program accreditation processes are the standards against which institutions are judged. The accreditation standards for NCATE are shown in Box 8-3. Instructional technology professionals strive to produce effective learning environments using the latest training technologies in both business and educational organizations. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Questions about the quality of the nation’s teachers go to the heart of many contentious issues in education policy. Achieving Accountability in Higher Education clarifies the concept of accountability for both public and private colleges and … Not a MyNAP member yet? Learn About Your Test Learn about the specific test you will be taking Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (5411) Test at a Glance Test Name Though standards-based testing and accountability are not without problems and detractors, most believe that they are here to stay, and that—on balance—they are having a positive effect (Stecher and Naftel, 2006; Massell, 2008). States also vary in the way they classify teaching certifications: teachers can be granted provisional certificates, professional or permanent certificates, or emergency certificates. BEYOND THE DEGREE FACTORY—MULTIPLE OUTPUTS AND JOINT PRODUCTION The greatest barriers to estimating the output of higher education derive from the fact that most institutions are multi-product firms. Education technology and connected learning provide almost unlimited possibilities for the continuous development of skills and knowledge throughout our lives. Learn more here. They also collaborate with colleagues in the disciplines and schools. Initial approval is granted first for all of the programs the institution is seeking approval for; then, the institution transitions to the continued program approval standards and process, for which there are annual reporting requirements and a site visit every 7 years in order to monitor program outcomes, candidate performance, and continuous improvement. States and professional accrediting bodies exert direct influence over the operations and content of teacher education programs. One report on test content (Mitchell and Barth, 1999) found that most teacher tests in English/language arts, mathematics, and science used a multiple-choice format and covered knowledge at the high school level: they “found no evidence of content at the baccalaureate level” (p. 8). For example, discussion of licensure, certification, and accreditation naturally suggests comparisons with other fields in which these issues arise, such as medicine, law, accounting, and various technical occupations. Two test development companies, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) and National Evaluation Systems (NES), produce most of these tests, although some states develop their own. Educators are expected to draw on a range of performance indicators to diagnose problem areas and sharpen interventions. Accountability is essential for an organization and for a society. In the colonial period, religious elders and important citizens would assess the moral and physical strength of teacher applicants. They have drawn the support of Democrats and Republicans, leaders of business and the civil rights community, and parents and educators. Workforce trends across sectors reflect heightened demand for workers at all levels who can demonstrate their knowledge and skill; high-stakes teacher certification tests are an example of this phenomenon in the teacher labor market (National Research Council, 2002b). This bring-your-own-device behavior blurs the boundary between leisure and school work. For example, NCATE has a board of examiners who are trained by NCATE in the accreditation processes (for details, see http://www.ncate.org [October 2009]). A person who is accountable may be called upon to answer and account for outcomes. Accountability has become the cornerstone of K-12 education re-. An ecosystem for learning To fully tap the creative potential of each person, we need to move beyond mass production of knowledge and toward … States’ accountability practices have relatively little foundation in empirical findings because little such evidence is available. The criteria for the selection of peers—whether teachers, administrators, or researchers—might have a profound influence on the resulting review because of those individuals’ professional views regarding the elements that are important or effective in teacher preparation. This folio review is followed by an on-site review for institutions that do not currently have approved programs. Requirements may include background checks and fingerprinting; character recommendations; oaths of allegiance; minimum age; state-mandated teacher tests of basic skills, professional knowledge, or content knowledge; the completion of coursework in various domains (e.g., subject-matter majors or minors, the teaching of reading, classroom management, content courses aligned with state level standards for students); and participation in clinical field experiences (National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification, 2000). Program completers indicate satisfaction with the level of preparedness for the first year of teaching. Standard 5: Faculty Qualifications, Performance, and Development: Faculty are qualified and model best professional practices in scholarship, service, and teaching, including the assessment of their own effectiveness as related to candidate performance. There is no centralized source of information about state requirements or the content of teacher preparation programs currently offered in the United States. only vary across states, they vary within states as well. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation. The challenges of effectively using accountability measures to ensure quality are not unique either to education or to the U.S. system, but the U.S. education system has charted its own course to a considerable extent. Japan has 138 institutions that offer preparation in mathematics and 149 that offer preparation in science (with some overlap). The requirements for teacher certification have evolved over time, reflecting shifting expectations of teachers. Following decades of state leadership in standards-based accountability, federal policy makers intensified the focus with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The focus of the initial review is process oriented; the focus of the continued review is performance based. Many states have their own standards for teachers, and some have standards for beginning teachers. The evaluation should focus specifically on evidence of learning and effects on outcomes. These comparisons, though limited, suggest that the United States is quite different from other countries in having such a highly variable approach to accountability for teacher education. The variation in states’ policies regarding accreditation is shown in Table 8-1. currently in use (National Research Council, 2001). With contributions from leading experts in the field, this comprehensive and timely book presents the principles and guidelines for effective accountability for states, colleges, and universities. Our examination of teacher preparation for reading, mathematics, and science brought out some interesting differences among the three as well as … It is also worth noting that some countries that perform at high levels on TIMSS, such as Singapore and Finland, provide financial support for teacher candidates and are recognized for their ability to recruit high-achieving students for teacher preparation programs. Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions: Candidates preparing to work in schools as teachers or other school professionals know and demonstrate the content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and skills, pedagogical and professional knowledge and skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn. The study noted that in all of the other fields, candidates are required to pass a single national exam or a state exam with a national component before they are allowed to begin practicing. Candidates demonstrate impact on P-12 student learning based on student achievement data in field or clinical experiences and during the first year of teaching. Some states issue teaching certificates and others issue licenses, with both typically serving the same function. ETS has published reports about how their tests are constructed, but most teacher tests are not available to researchers for content analyses or research. The evaluation should describe the. The purpose of this committee was not to determine whether teaching ought to be considered a profession, nor to rehash the arguments in that debate. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. There is no centralized information about how comparable these various modes are. The program documents the assistance and the results of the assistance provided to program completers who do not meet employer satisfaction in their first 2 years of teaching. Moreover, without a strong empirical, Florida State Teacher Education Program Approval Process. Ready to take your reading offline? In between making an agreement, taking action by a defined timeline and communicating the results of those actions, lay all kinds of learning opportunities. Thus, as in other professions, states and accrediting bodies draw on the standards developed by professional associations, other consensus recommendations, widely held commitments, or recognized best practices. For these reasons, we determined that a report on teacher preparation programs would be incomplete if it did not address accountability mechanisms. That law tied federal funds to measures of student learning, mandating that states assess achievement in core subjects annually with the goal of ensuring that all students reach proficient levels in those subjects by 2014. We could find no systematic information on or analysis of how state program approval is carried out or of its effects on quality. The regional agency procedures may include paper reviews of program curricula; in other cases on-site reviews are conducted by teams of educators and others. Moreover, candidates also take these tests at different times in their careers, and thus will have had varying amounts of education and student teaching when they are tested. Yet our examination of the quality of teacher education inevitably led us to consider program approval, accreditation, and certification as crucial policy levers. Major breakthroughs in information technology, communication, and transportation have Professional societies associated with other fields, such as architecture, medicine, and law, require preparation programs to obtain national accreditation as a way of assuring the public of the programs’ soundness and rigor. Yet, teacher preparation is often treated as an afterthought in discussions of improving the public education system. A detailed comparative analysis of accountability practices across occupations was not part of the committee’s charge and little information was available, but we do note a few general findings. We look first at accountability mechanisms that affect teachers directly. Once programs are registered with the state, all programs must be accredited by the state once every 4 years. Data from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality show that 32 states require their programs to align their curricula in some way with K-12 academic standards, and 28. require that programs align their curricula in some way with state standards for K-12 teachers (see http://www2.tqsource.org/mb2dev/reports/reportTQ.aspx?id=946 [December 2009]). The senior leadership of NCATE offered this committee access to its accreditation reports to help us describe programs. A wave of nationalism around the world has left many wondering if the trend toward greater global connection has reversed. Executive summary INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: What Is Economic Development? Similar concerns would hold for parents, policy makers, or any other participants. The history of school accountability first tells us that the idea and its principles have strong parentage. Current mandated state requirements and curricular content are consistently implemented and published in required documents. teaching effectiveness of graduates, including evidence their graduates: help them learn to their highest levels of achievement and independence, use their knowledge to create nurturing environment for all students. Some states convene panels of teacher educators from across the state to review these materials. As we discuss throughout this report, a growing body of literature has identified some of the behaviors and skills of teachers that boost K-12 student learning in core subjects, and that knowledge base can be tapped for teacher education accountability. None of the other fields allows candidates to gain licensure through alternative routes or to begin practicing before they have met all licensure requirements. The unit systematically evaluates faculty performance and facilitates professional development. The established, consensus- and research-based conclusions of the professional and academic communities associated with school subjects provide a critical source of guidance to programs and state accountability systems as to the kinds of content and knowledge and pedagogical content that benefit teachers. The national accrediting bodies have made progress toward implementing outcome-oriented standards, but much remains to be done. Can your big ideas change the world? NCATE’s standards are developed through a consensus process and are updated every 7 years (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2008). This study found that the United States and Australia have the least centralized systems and are the only two that do not have a single national agency that oversees teacher preparation programs. Congratulations to 2015 winners, Team Blendee, for their blended learning self development platform. The annual Ericsson Innovation Awards highlight talented student innovators from around the world. The support was strongest for conclusions about reading and weakest for conclusions about science. NCATE has six standards, detailed below. However, we were not able to find any comprehensive documentation or analysis of the standards that states used in accrediting teacher preparation institutions. And even in the short term, there are ways to focus current accountability systems on the best available evidence. According to data from NCATE and TEAC, over half of the approximately 1,300 U.S. teacher education programs they examined are accredited by one of the two national bodies: 632 by NCATE (see http://www.ncate.org/public/listofaccredinst.asp [December 2009]) and 59 by TEAC (see http://www.teac.org/index.php/membership/teac-members/ [December 2009]). A TEAC audit may be coordinated with state standards and accreditation procedures. We note that teacher education is hardly alone in lacking data that directly link components of professional preparation to the outcomes for those who receive the professionals’ services. Preparing Teachers also identifies a need for a data collection model to provide valid and reliable information about the content knowledge, pedagogical competence, and effectiveness of graduates from the various kinds of teacher preparation programs. Standard 6: Unit Governance and Resources: The unit has the leadership, authority, budget, personnel, facilities, and resources, including information technology resources, for the preparation of candidates to meet professional, state, and institutional standards. Others use the standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) or the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC). Accountability mechanisms are important tools for improving teacher education and could be an excellent ongoing source of the kind of information Congress has requested. 4. To fully tap the creative potential of each person, we need to move beyond mass production of knowledge and toward mass individualization of personal development. If student performance is to be the "product" of the education industry, there must be valid and reliable quality assurance procedures throughout the "production… Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and educational theory and practice to facilitate learning. 2 Large research universities produce undergraduate, professional and graduate degrees, research … ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Virtually no research exists that demonstrates the effects of accreditation on teacher quality (Wilson and Youngs, 2006). The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards also offers certification, available in all states, that identifies successful candidates (among teachers who have been in the classroom for at least 3 years) as accomplished teachers, and the states offer other sorts of specialized certification as well. We note that the identification of suitable peers for the accreditation of teacher education programs presents some challenges. Teacher preparation institutions that are accredited through the regional agencies must demonstrate that they meet the standards of eligibility of the Commission of Higher Education and then go through a process of self-study determined by the regional agency and aligned with that agency’s standards. Such measures are particularly needed for accountability purposes. Can your big ideas change the world? Mission Statement. Finally, we suggest that accountability ought to focus on assessments that show program graduates can practice effectively. More systematic information about the development and content of tests used for teacher accreditation or certification is needed. Some states have performance, or competency-based, processes, requiring that programs demonstrate how they ensure that prospective teachers have acquired the necessary knowledge and skill; others examine program outcomes, examining graduation, job placement, and retention rates. The available research was not designed to account for these and other sources of variance in performance: consequently, there is very little systematic information about the content or the predictive validity of these tests. The accreditation process of the six regional agencies is not comparable to the specialized accreditation offered by NCATE or TEAC. If the Department of Education wishes to meet the serious lack of information about teacher preparation programs, a comprehensive evaluation is needed. Congress sought this report on the state. Field or clinical sites represent diverse cultures and varying exceptionalities and performance levels, in a variety of settings, including high-needs schools. York and Florida, respectively. It is clear from our review of accountability in teacher preparation that the existing evidence does not support a strong conclusion about the effectiveness of the current accountability process in teacher education. To earn a full license, teachers in some states must pass assessments of classroom performance. Although such an approach is likely to be more difficult and expensive than the current one, it is a fundamental need if teacher education is to reflect the ultimate outcome, student learning. TEAC sends a team of auditors to check the accuracy of the materials submitted by an institution. Territories, and the District of Columbia), the state board of education authorizes teacher certification in 21, in 16 it is the state education agency, and in 16 it is a board or commission established specifically for that purpose (no policy was found for Guam or Michigan). View our suggested citation for this chapter. As we discuss in Chapter 3, the distinction between traditional and alternative pathways is problematic, but in most states programs described as traditional or alternative are subject to separate systems of accountability and quality control. The key elements in each of these standards is shown below. In addition to these general requirements, state regulations specify a “content core” and a “pedagogical core” for each certification type. The authors also found that all of the six comparison fields have more consistent program approval mechanisms across the states than does education. Standard 2: Assessment System and Unit Evaluation: The unit has an assessment system that collects and analyzes data on applicant qualifications, candidate and graduate performance, and unit operations to evaluate and improve the performance of candidates, the unit, and its programs. It should also assess the extent to which existing processes and organizations align with best practices in accountability and offer recommendations for how they could do so more effectively in the future. STEM is an educational program developed to prepare primary and secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In addition, although empirical links between teacher preparation and student learning have not been established, current accountability mechanisms could likely use information that is available. Overall, based on professional consensus in each field about what successful students know and a variety of evidence about the experiences that support student learning, we offer conclusions that can point teacher educators toward the best currently available guidance about preparation in these fields. Each program consistently applies state-mandated admission requirements. But their survey has attracted insufficient attention in discussions of education accountability, so another effort is called for. Preparing Teachers addresses the issue of teacher preparation with specific attention to reading, mathematics, and science. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Each program submits a self-study report for review by up to three external reviewers, selected by the New York State Department of Education. Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy. form efforts in the United States, as it has in business and other sectors, though there have been disagreements about which sorts of accountability measures are the most useful in the context of public education. See Boxes 8-1 and 8-2 for descriptions of the approval processes for New. 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